Elise Maalouf
Souheil Hallit
Pascale Salameh
 5,6,7,8 and 
Hassan Hosseini
Life and Health Sciences Department, Paris-Est University, 94000 Créteil, France
School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Jounieh P.O. Box 446, Lebanon
Applied Science Research Center, Applied Science Private University, Amman 11931, Jordan
Research Department, Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib P.O. Box 60096, Lebanon
School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Byblos 5053, Lebanon
INSPECT-LB: Institut National de Santé Publique, Épidémiologie Clinique et Toxicologie-Liban, Beirut 1103, Lebanon
Medical School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia 2417, Cyprus
Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadat 1533, Lebanon
UPE-C, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Faculté de Santé, INSERM U955-E01, IMRB, 94000 Créteil, France
Hopital Henri Mondor, APHP, 94000 Créteil, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. 
Healthcare 202311(4), 538; (registering DOI)
Received: 5 January 2023 / Revised: 3 February 2023 /Accepted: 7 February 2023 / Published: 11 February 2023


Background: Stroke remains a major leading cause of morbidity and death globally. For ischemic stroke, the most frequent type of stroke, there are numerous risk models and risk assessments offered. Further research into potential risk factors or triggers is being sought to improve stroke risk models. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol use disorder are all common causes of serious mental illnesses in the general population. Due to the tangled relationship between stroke and many chronic illnesses, lifestyle factors, and diet that may be present in a patient with a mental disease, the relationship between mental diseases and stroke requires further validation. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to assess the potential influence of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcohol use disorder on stroke patients as compared to non-stroke participants, after controlling for demographic, physical, and medical conditions. We aimed, as a secondary objective, to evaluate the impact of these pre-existing disorders on stroke severity levels. Methods: This research is a case-control survey study involving 113 Lebanese patients with a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke and 451 gender-matched volunteers without clinical signs of stroke as controls recruited from several hospitals in Lebanon (April 2020–April 2021). Based on the participant’s consent, data was collected by filling out an anonymous paper-based questionnaire. Results: All of the odds ratios (ORs) generated by our regression model were greater than 1, indicating that the factors studied were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. As such having schizophrenia (adjusted OR [aOR]: 6.162, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.136–33.423), bipolar disorder (aOR: 4.653, 95% CI: 1.214–17.834), alcohol use disorder (aOR: 3.918, 95% CI: 1.584–9.689), atrial fibrillation (aOR: 2.415, 95% CI: 1.235–4.721), diabetes (aOR: 1.865, 95% CI: 1.117–3.115), heart diseases (aOR: 9.890, 95% CI: 5.099–19.184), and asthma-COPD (aOR: 1.971, 95% CI: 1.190–3.263) were all involved with a high risk of developing an ischemic stroke. Moreover, obesity (aOR: 1.732, 95% CI: 1.049–2.861) and vigorous physical activity (aOR: 4.614, 95% CI: 2.669–7.978) were also linked to an increased risk of stroke. Moreover, our multinomial regression model revealed that the odds of moderate to severe/severe stroke were significantly higher in people with pre-stroke alcohol use disorder (aOR: 1.719, 95% CI: 1.385–2.133), bipolar disorder (aOR: 1.656, 95% CI: 1.281–2.141), and schizophrenia (aOR: 6.884, 95% CI: 3.294–11.492) compared to people who had never had a stroke. Conclusion: The findings in our study suggest that individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol use disorder may be at a higher risk for ischemic stroke and exhibit more severe symptoms. We believe that the first step toward creating beneficial preventative and treatment interventions is determining individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol use disorder, assessing their risk of ischemic stroke, developing more integrated treatments, and closely monitoring the long-term outcome in the event of an ischemic stroke.
Keywords: ischemic strokealcohol use disordersbipolar disordersschizophreniastroke severity

MDPI and ACS Style

Maalouf, E.; Hallit, S.; Salameh, P.; Hosseini, H. Impact of Preexisting Alcohol Use Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia on Ischemic Stroke Risk and Severity: A Lebanese Case-Control Study. Healthcare 202311, 538.

AMA Style

Maalouf E, Hallit S, Salameh P, Hosseini H. Impact of Preexisting Alcohol Use Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia on Ischemic Stroke Risk and Severity: A Lebanese Case-Control Study. Healthcare. 2023; 11(4):538.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maalouf, Elise, Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh, and Hassan Hosseini. 2023. "Impact of Preexisting Alcohol Use Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia on Ischemic Stroke Risk and Severity: A Lebanese Case-Control Study" Healthcare 11, no. 4: 538.