This is the pilot version of Therapoid. Register or Sign in as a pilot user to collaborate.

Forums

COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence

ChinaepidemiologyCOVID19trackinggenomics

COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Jason E. Barkeloo on April 9, 2020, 12:59 p.m.

Evolutionary biology researchers investigation the genome of SARS-CoV-2 at Nextstrain https://nextstrain.org/ncov/global?animate=2019-12-08,2020-04-05,0,0,30000 show the migration of COVID19 from Europe first, not China.

An article to discusses the findings:

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/08/science/new-york-coronavirus-cases-europe-genomes.html

Most New York Coronavirus Cases Came From Europe, Genomes Show

Travelers seeded multiple cases starting as early as mid-February, genomes show.

New research indicates that the coronavirus began to circulate in the New York area by mid-February, weeks before the first confirmed case, and that travelers brought in the virus mainly from Europe, not Asia.

“The majority is clearly European,” said Harm van Bakel, a geneticist at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, who co-wrote a study awaiting peer review.

A separate team at N.Y.U. Grossman School of Medicine came to strikingly similar conclusions, despite studying a different group of cases. Both teams analyzed genomes from coronaviruses taken from New Yorkers starting in mid-March.

The research revealed a previously hidden spread of the virus that might have been detected if aggressive testing programs had been put in place.

On Jan. 31, President Trump barred foreign nationals from entering the country if they had been in China during the prior two weeks.

It would not be until late February that Italy would begin locking down towns and cities, and March 11 when Mr. Trump said he would block travelers from most European countries. But New Yorkers had already been traveling home with the virus.

“People were just oblivious,” said Adriana Heguy, a member of the N.Y.U. team.

Dr. Heguy and Dr. van Bakel belong to an international guild of viral historians. They ferret out the history of outbreaks by poring over clues embedded in the genetic material of viruses taken from thousands of patients.

Viruses invade a cell and take over its molecular machinery, causing it to make new viruses.

The process is quick and sloppy. As a result, new viruses can gain a new mutation that wasn’t present in their ancestor. If a new virus manages to escape its host and infect other people, its descendants will inherit that mutation.

Tracking viral mutations demands sequencing all the genetic material in a virus — its genome. Once researchers have gathered the genomes from a number of virus samples, they can compare their mutations.

Sophisticated computer programs can then figure out how all of those mutations arose as viruses descended from a common ancestor. If they get enough data, they can make rough estimates about how long ago those ancestors lived. That’s because mutations arise at a roughly regular pace, like a molecular clock.

Maciej Boni of Penn State University and his colleagues recently used this method to see where the coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, came from in the first place. While conspiracy theories might falsely claim the virus was concocted in a lab, the virus’s genome makes clear that it arose in bats.

There are many kinds of coronaviruses, which infect both humans and animals. Dr. Boni and his colleagues found that the genome of the new virus contains a number of mutations in common with strains of coronaviruses that infect bats.

The most closely related coronavirus is in a Chinese horseshoe bat, the researchers found. But the new virus has gained some unique mutations since splitting off from that bat virus decades ago.

Dr. Boni said that ancestral virus probably gave rise to a number of strains that infected horseshoe bats, and perhaps sometimes other animals.

“Very likely there’s a vast unsampled diversity,” he said.

Copying mistakes aren’t the only way for new viruses to arise. Sometimes two kinds of coronaviruses will infect the same cell. Their genetic material gets mixed up in new viruses.

It’s entirely possible, Dr. Boni said, in the past 10 or 20 years, a hybrid virus arose in some horseshoe bat that was well-suited to infect humans, too. Later, that virus somehow managed to cross the species barrier.

“Once in a while, one of these viruses wins the lottery,” he said.

In January, a team of Chinese and Australian researchers published the first genome of the new virus. Since then, researchers around the world have sequenced over 3,000 more. Some are genetically identical to each other, while others carry distinctive mutations.

That’s just a tiny sampling of the full diversity of the virus. As of April 8, there were 1.5 million confirmed cases of Covid-19, and the true total is probably many millions more. But already, the genomes of the virus are revealing previously hidden outlines of its history over the past few months.

As new genomes come to light, researchers upload them to an online database called GISAID. A team of virus evolution experts are analyzing the growing collection of genomes in a project called Nextstrain. They continually update the virus family tree.

The deepest branches of the tree all belong to lineages from China. The Nextstrain team has also used the mutation rate to determine that the virus probably first moved into humans from an animal host in late 2019. On Dec. 31, China announced that doctors in Wuhan were treating dozens of cases of a mysterious new respiratory illness.

But the United States fumbled in making its first diagnostic kits and initially limited testing only to people who had come from China and displayed symptoms of Covid-19.

“It was a disaster that we didn’t do testing,” Dr. Heguy said.

A few cases came to light starting at the end of January. But it was easy to dismiss them as rare imports that did not lead to local outbreaks.

The illusion was dashed at the end of February by Trevor Bedford, an associate professor at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington, and his colleagues.

Using Nextstrain, they showed that a virus identified in a patient in late February had mutation shared by one identified in Washington on Jan. 20.

The Washington viruses also shared other mutations in common with ones isolated in Wuhan, suggesting that a traveler had brought the coronavirus from China.

With that discovery, Dr. Bedford and his colleagues took the lead in sequencing coronavirus genomes. Sequencing more genomes around Washington gave them a better view of how the outbreak there got started.

“I’m quite confident that it was not spreading in December in the United States,” Dr. Bedford said. “There may have been a couple other introductions in January that didn’t take off in the same way.”

As new cases arose in other parts of the country, other researchers set up their own pipelines. The first positive test result in New York came on March 1, and after a couple of weeks, patients surged into the city’s hospitals.

“I thought, ‘We need to do this for New York,’” Dr. Heguy said.

Dr. Heguy and her colleagues found some New York viruses that shared unique mutations not found elsewhere. “That’s when you know you’ve had a silent transmission for a while,” she said.

Dr. Heguy estimated that the virus began circulating in the New York area a couple of months ago.

And researchers at Mount Sinai started sequencing the genomes of patients coming through their hospital. They found that the earliest cases identified in New York were not linked to later ones.

“Two weeks later, we start seeing viruses related to each other,” said Ana Silvia Gonzalez-Reiche, a member of the Mount Sinai team.

Dr. Gonzalez-Reiche and her colleagues found that these viruses were practically identical to viruses found around Europe. They cannot say on what particular flight a particular virus arrived in New York. But they write that the viruses reveal “a period of untracked global transmission between late January to mid-February.”

So far, the Mount Sinai researchers have identified seven separate lineages of viruses that entered New York and began circulating. “We will probably find more,” Dr. van Bakel said.

The coronavirus genomes are also revealing hints of early cross-country travel.

Dr. van Bakel and his colleagues found one New York virus that was identical to one of the Washington viruses found by Dr. Bedford and his colleagues. In a separate study, researchers at Yale found another Washington-related virus. Combined, the two studies hint that the coronavirus has been moving from coast to coast for several weeks.

Sidney Bell, a computational biologist working with the Nextstrain team, cautions people not to read too much into these new mutations themselves. “Just because something is different doesn’t mean it matters,” Dr. Bell said.

Mutations do not automatically turn viruses into new, fearsome strains. They often don’t bring about any change at all. “To me, mutations are inevitable and kind of boring,” Dr. Bell said. “But in the movies, you get the X-Men.”

Peter Thielen, a virologist at the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, likes to think of the spread of viruses like a dandelion seed landing on an empty field.

The flower grows up and produces seeds of its own. Those seeds spread and sprout. New mutations arise over the generations as the dandelions fill the field. “But they’re all still dandelions,” Dr. Thielen said.

While the coronavirus mutations are useful for telling lineages apart, they don’t have any apparent effect on how the virus works.

That’s good news for scientists working on a vaccine.

Vaccine developers hope to fight Covid-19 by teaching our bodies to make antibodies that can grab onto the virus and block its entry into cells.

Carl Zimmer, 08 April 2020

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Niobium Nd Ctenophora on March 16, 2021, 2:07 a.m.

https://www.yeezy-adidas.us.com/ Adidas Yeezy https://www.yzy.us.com/ Yeezy https://www.nikeoutletstore.us.com/ Nike Outlet https://www.adidas-yeezy.org/ Adidas Yeezy https://www.airmax-720.com/ Air Max 720 https://www.nike-airmax270.com/ Nike Air Max 270 https://www.nikeairforce-1.com/ Nike Air Force 1

https://www.air-jordan11.com/ Air Jordan 11

https://www.air-force1.com/ Air Force 1

https://www.adidasnmdboost.com/ ADIDAS NMD

https://www.yeezywaverunner700.us/ Yeezy 700

https://www.air-jordan1.com/ Air Jordan 1

https://www.nike-jordans.com/ Nike Jordans

https://www.jordan-1s.com/ Jordan 1s

https://www.nikejordan1.com/ Nike Jordan 1

https://www.nikeairvapormaxflyknit3.us/ Nike Air VaporMax Flyknit 3

https://www.nikeairmax270react.us/ Nike Air Max 270 React

https://www.nikeoutlets.co/ Nike Outlet

https://www.niketrainers.co/ Nike Trainers

https://www.nikeoutletstore.co/ Nike Outlet Store

https://www.jordan-1.org/ Jordan 1

https://www.jordan11.org/ Jordan 11

https://www.nike-jordan.us/ Nike Jordan

https://www.uggsclearancesaleoutlet.us/ UGGS Clearance Sale Outlet

https://www.uggsofficialsite.us/ UGGS Official Site

https://www.nikeairvapormax.us/ Nike Air VaporMax

https://www.nike-270.us/ Nike 270

https://www.nikeairforce-1.us.com/ Nike Air Force 1

https://www.nikevapormax.org/ Nike Vapormax

https://www.nikevapormaxflyknit.com/ Nike Vapormax Flyknit

https://www.airjordan1-mid.com/ Air Jordan 1 Mid

https://www.yeezy-shoes.co/ Yeezy Shoes

https://www.nikestoreoutlet.us.com/ Nike Outlet

https://www.yeezy-350.org/ Yeezy 350

https://www.yeezy-shoess.us/ Yeezy Shoes

https://www.yeezys.co/ Yeezys

https://www.yeezycinder.us/ Yeezy Cinder

https://www.yeezys.org.uk/ Yeezy

https://www.yeezyadidas.de/ Adidas yeezy

https://www.adidasyeezy.co/ Adidas yeezy

https://www.yeezyshoess.com/ Yeezy Shoes

https://www.adidasyeezyofficialwebsite.us/ Adidas Yeezy Official Website

https://www.discountuggsoutlet.us/ Discount UGG Outlet

https://www.uggoutlet.store/ UGG Outlet

https://www.yeezy350.me.uk/ Yeezy 350

https://www.adidasyeezy.me.uk/ Adidas Yeezy

https://www.ugguk.org.uk/ UGG UK

https://www.yeezy350.de/ Yeezy 350

https://www.uggsoutlet.us/ UGGS Outlet

https://www.timberlands.me.uk/ Timberland

https://www.timberlandshoes.org.uk/ Timberland Shoes

https://www.airmax97.us.com/ Air Max 97

https://www.max270.us.com/ Nike Air Max 270

https://www.supplyyeezy.us.com/ Yeezy Supply

https://www.kobebryant-jersey.us/ Kobe Bryant Jersey

https://www.kobebryantjerseysforsale.us/ Kobe Bryant Jerseys For Sale

https://www.kobebryantjersey24.us/ Kobe Bryant Jersey 24

https://www.kobebryantwebsiteofficial.us/ Kobe Bryant Website Official

https://www.yeezy-shoe.us.com/ Yeezy

https://www.yeezymafia.us.com/ Yeezy

https://www.nikes.us.com/ Nike Shoes

https://www.nikeshoes.us.org/ Nike Shoes

https://www.nfl-jerseys.us.org/ NFL Jerseys

https://www.nikeoutletstoreonlineshopping.us/ Nike Outlet

https://www.yeezy380.us/ Yeezy 380

https://www.yeezy380.us.com/ Yeezy 380

https://www.nikefactory.us.com/ Nike Outlet

https://www.humanraces.us.com/ Human Races

https://www.humanracesshoes.us/ Human Race Shoes

https://www.basketball-jerseys.us.com/ Basketball Jerseys

https://www.jerseysbasketball.us/ Basketball Jerseys

https://www.jerseys-nba.us/ Cheap NBA Jerseys

https://www.nikes-shoes.us.com/ Nike Outlet

https://www.yeezy-shoe.us.com/ Yeezy Shoes

https://www.yeezymafia.us.com/ Yeezy Mafia

https://www.yeezy350v2.us/ Yeezy 350 V2

https://www.yeezysofficialsite.us/ Yeezys Official Site

https://www.yeezyslides.us/ Yeezy sliders

https://www.jerseys-nba.us.com/ NBA Jerseys

https://www.jerseysnba.us.com/ NBA Jerseys

https://www.nbaoutletstore.us/ NBA Store

https://www.yeezystore.us.com/ Yeezy

https://www.yeezyssneakers.us.com/ Yeezy Sneaker

https://www.adidasyeezyofficialwebsite.com/ Adidas Yeezy Official Website

https://www.adidasyeezyonlinestore.us/ Adidas Yeezy Online Store

https://www.airmaxclearancesale.us/ Air Max Clearance Sale

https://www.nflshopofficialonlinestore.com/ NFL Shop Official Online Store

https://www.nikeuk.uk.com/ Nike UK

https://www.yeezy.uk.com/ Yeezy

https://www.yeezy350.uk.com/ Yeezy 350

https://www.adidasyeezy.uk.com/ Adidas Yeezy

https://www.airjordan-1.us/ Air Jordan 1

https://www.airjordan1.us.com/ Air Jordan 1

https://www.jordan-1.us.com/ Jordan 1

https://www.jordan1s.us.com/ Jordan 1s

https://www.jordan1s.us/ Jordan 1s

https://www.retrojordan.us.com/ Jordan Retro

https://www.jordanretro4.us.com/ Jordan Retro 4

https://www.jordan4-retro.us/ Jordan 4 Retro

https://www.jordansshoess.us.com/ Jordans Shoes

https://www.jordan4s.us/ Jordan 4s

https://www.diorjordan1.us/ Dior Jordan 1

https://www.airjordan1mid.us/ Air Jordan 1 Mid

https://www.jordan11concord.us/ Jordan 11 Concord

https://www.jordan11retro.us/ Jordan 11 Retro

https://www.jordan1low.us/ Jordan 1 Low

https://www.jordan11s.us/ Jordan 11s

https://www.jordanaj1.us/ Jordan AJ 1

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on April 22, 2021, 10:40 a.m.

Everybody Hates Chris sometimes bores me because the jokes aren’t so funny anymore but i still watch it all the time, [url=https://cannabiscureshop.com/product/1000mg-thc-vape-liquid-ease/]thc vape juice[/url]

===================================================

When visiting blogs, i always look for a very nice content like yours .  

[url=https://herbalincensecureshop.com/product/pure-fire-herbal-incense/]Fire herbal incense[/url]

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on May 1, 2021, 5:10 a.m.

Wow, this is truly an influencing take on this idea. 시흥출장마사지 -==- Hello, does one like hot girls? Check liseli seks ! obesity medicine

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on May 2, 2021, 4:10 p.m.

Iím not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back in the future. Cheers Herbal Incense

=================================================

I have not checked in here for a while as I thought it was getting boring, but the last several posts are good quality so I guess I will add you back to my everyday bloglist. You deserve it my friend Facials Huntington Beach

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on May 10, 2021, 7:50 a.m.

i just started dating and well, dating is a very exciting experience. i just love to date women.. buy bongs

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on June 20, 2021, 9:19 a.m.

Thank you for another informative website. Where else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect way? I have a project that I’m just now working on, and I’ve been on the look out for such information. ounce of weed


Thanks for sharing this information. I really like your blog post very much. You have really shared a informative and interesting blog post with people.. Blog


Hello there! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a group of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a marvellous job! agen judi online

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on June 22, 2021, 6:07 a.m.

Aw, this became quite a good post. In concept I have to put in place writing like that additionally – spending time and actual effort to generate a top notch article… but what / things I say… I procrastinate alot and by no indicates find a way to get something done. Iphone cases


I’d ought to seek advice from you here. Which isn’t some thing I usually do! I spend time reading an article which will make people believe. Also, thank you permitting me to comment! **먹튀


I just additional this particular feed to be able to my book marks. I need to say, I seriously take pleasure in reading your own sites. Keep it up! get this info

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on June 29, 2021, 4:15 p.m.

Many thanks for creating the effort to discuss this, I feel strongly about this and love learning a great deal more on this subject. If possible, as you gain expertise, would you mind updating your website with a great deal more info? It’s really useful for me. daftar idn poker

=======================================================

I your writing style genuinely loving this internet site . malware news

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on July 4, 2021, 2:28 p.m.

This is tough. I’m not pointing fingers at you though, personally I think that its those that aren’t motivated to change. 휴게텔

=======================================================

That was a great blog. You made some exceptional points and I appreciate for your insight! 토토

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on July 5, 2021, 11:31 a.m.

I will invite all my friends to your blog, you really got a great blog.”\"*`. 420 mail order

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on July 6, 2021, 9:20 a.m.

What’s Taking place i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I have found It absolutely helpful and it has helped me out loads. I hope to contribute & aid different customers like its aided me. Great job. molek showflat

-=-=

I’m usually to blogging and that i really appreciate your articles. The actual article has really highs my personal curiosity. I am going to bookmark your own site and maintain checking for brand spanking new info. 室內設計

TS  

  By: Thallium Hg Porifera on July 8, 2021, 9:47 a.m.

Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive read anything like this before. So nice to find somebody with some original thoughts on this subject. realy thank you for starting this up. this website is something that is needed on the web, someone with a little originality. useful job for bringing something new to the internet! 메이저사이트=================================================================================Thankyou for all your efforts that you have put in this. very interesting info . 청주출장안마

mtom  

  By: Roentgenium Ti Porifera on July 12, 2021, 10:38 a.m.

I’m curious to find out what blog system you are utilizing? I’m having some small security problems with my latest blog and I would like to find something more risk-free. Do you have any solutions? จิรภพ ภูริเดช


Appreciate it for this post, I am a big fan of this website would like to continue updated. Read More

Re: COVID19 SARS-CoV-2 came to the U.S. from Europe, not China according to new genomic evidence  

  By: Darmstadtium Pr Nitrospira on July 14, 2021, 7:21 a.m.

Terrific paintings! This is the kind of info that are meant to be shared across the internet. Disgrace on the seek for not positioning this submit upper! Come on over and seek advice from my site . Thanks =) poker online